FHWA Work Zone Data Initiative

We in the work zone traffic control world and specifically the work zone ITS world have long wrestled with how best to gather and evaluate work zone data. This has been a topic of discussion at conferences, peer-to-peer exchanges, and in DOTs nationwide. These systems are now providing a great deal of data and the FHWA feels it is time we settled on a standard approach to that data. In response, they have launched the Work Zone Data Initiative (WZDI).

The stated goals of the initiative are:

“To develop a recommended practice for managing work zone data.” And to “create a consistent language for communicating information on work zone activity across jurisdictional and organizational boundaries.”

They are working to develop a specification for work zone data that supports DOT efforts throughout the project and also allows some sort of standardized evaluation and comparison once that project is complete. They want the data to become more useful for project planning, for real-time traffic operations, and for post project analytics.

This is something our industry must be involved in. Please let us know if you are. But if you are not, please contact Todd Peterson, FHWA Work Zone Management Team Transportation Specialist to express your interest. His email address is Todd.Peterson@dot.gov .

 

USDOT has also announced a competition on Advancing Innovative Ways to Analyze Crash Data. They point out that most crash data (as well as work zone data) is siloed and made available only on an annual basis. By opening those sources of data up, DOT hopes to take advantage of new tools such as machine learning (see 4/10/17 post) to gain insights on ways we can reduce roadway fatalities.

This effort is not work zone specific, but could result in improvements that our past state and project specific analysis was unable to find.

Work Zone Traffic Control “Down-Under”

We just returned from a wonderful trip to Australia where we spoke to the Traffic Management Association of Australia (TMAA) about work zone ITS. Their members were all excited and focused on finding safer, more efficient ways to manage their work zones.

The program was packed full of interesting speakers and a variety of timely topics. They also gave us all just the right amount of time to discuss those topics between sessions. It was very well run.

The attendees seemed to enjoy talking to Americans and all asked what we thought of the meeting. My first answer was always the same: traffic control companies in both countries share the exact same set of problems:

1) Speeding in work zones.

2) End-of-queue crashes.

3) Hiring, training and retaining good employees.

4) A perception by the driving public that we are there to make their lives miserable.

5) Insufficient funding for maintenance and construction.

6) Changing standards and levels of enforcement from one state to the next.

7) Varying commitment and funding levels from one state to the next.

Just like ATSSA, the TMAA brings contractors, manufacturers, academia and government agencies together to discuss these problems and identify solutions. The TMAA does an especially good job of this. We look forward to learning more from them in the years to come!

The Importance of Crash Modification Factors to Work Zone ITS

A webinar was held December 5th on work zone crash data collection and analysis. It was organized by Wayne State University and included speakers from the University of Missouri and Michigan State University. A recording of the webinar will be made available soon.

Several very good resources were made available as the webinar began including “A Guide for Work Zone Crash Data Collection, Reporting, and Analysis” which was produced for the FHWA by the Wayne State University College of Engineering. This guide can be found at:  https://www.workzonesafety.org/files/documents/training/fhwa_wz_grant/wsu_wz_data_collection_guide.pdf

As a work zone ITS practitioner, I have deployed many systems over the years but have very little data to prove the effectiveness of those deployments. The problem has always been establishing a base line of the probable number of crashes given the traffic control, project duration, traffic volumes, etc. Only with that base line can we compare our actual crash numbers to determine whether the system was cost-effective.

The crash data guide states the problem very succinctly, “In order to perform an effective work zone safety analysis, the appropriate work zone crash data needs to be available. The availability of this data is only as good as what is collected on the state crash report form.”

The webinar pointed to several states’ best practices in this regard. At a minimum, states are required to include a checkbox on their form to indicate if the crash was work zone related. But states including Connecticut, Iowa, Minnesota, Pennsylvania and Virginia collect much more. They go into detail about the location of the crash within the work zone, and what types of traffic control and construction activity was in place at the time of that crash.

That data will help them develop Crash Modification Factors (CFMs) for different traffic control treatments. In time we hope to see CFMs for queue warning systems, dynamic merge systems, variable speed limit systems, and much more. Those CFMs could be specific to high volume multi-lane facilities, rural four lane highways, etc.

Once CFMs are developed, the rest of the process is fairly simple. Compare the CFM associated with your proposed system to the traffic volumes where that system will be used, and you will know immediately whether the use of that system is justified. The use of these systems is already taking off, but there is still some guess work involved in the decision to use or not use work zone ITS. By developing CFMs we could speed that process along and make it more scientific.

5G Cell Service and Opportunities for Our Industry

By now, most of you are aware that 5G phone service will be here soon. But you may not understand what that means for our industry. An article written by Hongtao Zhan of SureCall and published recently in VB talks about its potential:

https://venturebeat.com/2017/09/30/5g-isnt-just-faster-it-will-open-up-a-whole-new-world/

As the article points out, download speeds could be as much as 100 times faster than we currently experience with 4G service. This service will be expensive at first but once everyone has switched to 5G devices those faster download speeds could result in greater use of video as data rates eventually decline.

But the most important aspect of 5G for our purposes is latency. Latency is a measure of how quickly critical data is transmitted. 5G offers near zero latency. This will enable an incredible array of new technologies affecting every part of our lives. That is why “Qualcomm is calling 5G the “platform for invention.””

Mr. Zhan describes ways 5G could be used for things like haptic controls in vehicles for purposes such as lane keeping, collision avoidance and more. For our world haptic controls mean we could deploy “virtual rumble strips” in advance of work areas to wake up drivers and perhaps even to return control of autonomous vehicles over to drivers.

Zero latency means workers could be removed from the work area and could perform many dangerous operations remotely using a virtual reality head set and controls. For example, they could “drive” TMA trucks remotely. We might also create a remote control cone setting machine. Striping trucks and RPM installation might also be automated.

How about a phone app to warn workers? With near zero latency, we could create an intrusion warning system that works fast enough to save lives, while requiring very little in additional equipment – just the smart phones everyone is already carrying around. The work area could be delineated on a digital map and any vehicle crossing those lines would trigger warnings to anyone in the area who has downloaded the app.

The possibilities are endless and this new communications protocol is right around the corner. It is time for us to begin thinking about how we might use it to improve safety and save lives.

Caltrans QuickMap to Add Waze Data

 

Caltrans recently announced changes to their popular QuickMap travel app. The app is available online at http://quickmap.dot.ca.gov/ and from your app store for both Apple and Android. In QuickMap users choose what they want to see, and the area they are interested in seeing, and a custom map shows them exactly that and no more. Travel times and factors affecting travel times such as work zones, weather and other incidents are all displayed in near real time.

They have now added an option to see Waze data. This is significant to those of us interested in work zone ITS because Waze displays iCone sensor data as work zone locations. For example, Road-Tech currently has an iCone system on SR99 in Fresno and the work zone is displayed in QuickMap with an icon of a worker in a hard hat:

Eventually these icons when clicked on will display detailed travel speeds and other pertinent information. That data will help drivers avoid delays and better plan their routes. And in Waze, drivers can add their own information on work zones, crashes and other incidents.

QuickMap is testing the next mobile version in which users can input their own Waze markers directly from QuickMap. It will be one more way to get real-time work zone information to the people that need it most!

Report from the Automated Vehicles Symposium, Part 2

In our last post we discussed the need recognized at the Automated Vehicle Symposium for varying levels of vehicle autonomy based on the road and current conditions. One of those conditions is clearly work zones. A car may be able to operate at Level 4 autonomy in freeway traffic, but may have difficulty ding the same in some work zones.

In those cases we must signal the vehicle to alert the driver to prepare to retake control. And that warning will have to be given leaving sufficient time for the driver to become cognizant of the dangers around his or her vehicle. A poster session at the AV Symposium by Chris Schwartz of the University of Iowa looked at that timing. Their study focused on large trucks and found drivers needed as much as 10 seconds to get their wits about them for normal driving. Work zones should probably allow a little more time, as drivers may have to start immediately to negotiate lane shifts, narrow lanes, or other challenges. So ideally this signal would come at about the first construction area sign (ROAD WORK AHEAD).

The conventional method would occur through the cars digital map. That will be how other hand-offs take place, such as when driving from a roadway capable of supporting level 4 automation to an older stretch only capable of supporting level 3. But those are points that rarely move or change. Work zones may only take place for a few days, or a few hours. As we have discussed in past posts, the map must be updated in real time for features like this to work correctly.

Manufacturers are working today on beacons, arrow boards, and more that will signal when lane closures begin and when they end. This is already happening today and will only become more popular as smart technology is accepted in more and more work zones.

But another option was mentioned in the same session. 3M is experimenting with a way of placing two-dimensional bar codes within their reflective sign sheeting. The bar codes are only readable by infrared cameras. Drivers would never see them. They would just see the static sign saying something like ROAD WORK AHEAD. But the car they are driving would be triggered to return control to the driver.

This technology is in the very early stages of testing. 3M has signs up on freeways in Michigan now and hopes to test more of them in the Bay Area of California soon. It is too early to say this is a solution but it does show promise. A combination of map triggers and these signs would provide some redundancy and might also be a simpler way of notifying drivers of very short term work zones such as those installed by utility companies and smaller agencies.

The good news is that both the traffic control industry and the AV industry recognize the importance of this hand-off prior to work zones and they are working to find solutions.

Combining Queue Warning with Dynamic Late Merge

In our last post we talked about the ATSSA “Tuesday Topics” webinar held June 27th. Joe Jeffrey began the webinar with a discussion of work zone ITS basics. Chris Brookes of Michigan DOT shared some of his lessons learned. The final speaker that day was Ross Sheckler of iCone there to talk about coming trends in work zone ITS. Ross declared that the next big thing will be queue warning combined with dynamic late merge.

Mr. Sheckler began by looking at the state of our industry. He said that nationally there are nearly 1,000 deployments per year now. Costs of these systems are dramatically lower than they once were. And the economy and simplicity of these systems have not affected their flexibility. In fact, because applications vary, flexibility always has been and always will be an important feature of work zone ITS.

And for that reason it is very easy to add features, including dynamic late merge. As Ross pointed out, queue warning systems have their limitations. When volumes increase and queue lengths extend beyond the limits of a queue warning system additional steps should be taken. By instructing drivers to stay in their lanes and take turns at the merge point, it reduces the overall queue length, makes the best use of limited capacity, reduces road rage, and sometimes can even improve throughout.

In his drawings of typical system configurations he listed 4 sensors and 1 portable changeable message sign (PCMS) for queue warning. For queue warning with dynamic late merge he added a second PCMS at the merge point to tell drivers to take turns and a fifth sensor to narrow the gap between sensors midway through the affected area. So, in total, just 1 more sensor and 1 more sign. This is a minimal added cost and significantly increases the capabilities of the system.

The message here is that we can often solve multiple problems with one system. It just takes a slightly different logic in the controlling software. In this case you can solve problems with end of queue crashes and conflicts at the merge point with one inexpensive, easy to use system. So please remember this the next time you specify a work zone ITS system. Consider all of the challenges you face on that project, and think about ways work zone ITS may mitigate one, two or perhaps even many of them.

This webinar covered a lot of ground in a very short time.  It was recorded and can be viewed by ATSSA members anytime at: http://www.atssa.com/TuesdayTopics/Recorded. Or watch for possible future webinars on this same topic.