Renewing the National Commitment to the Interstate Highway System: A Foundation for the Future

We are looking forward to the American Traffic Safety Services Association (ATSSA) Midyear Meetings. https://www.atssa.com/Events/Midyear-Meeting  They will be held next week (August 21 to 23) in San Diego. There will be many topics of interest including the joint working group with the Automotive Safety Council discussing automated vehicles and how their systems will communicate with work zones and a new Traffic Signals working group meeting to form a new division in ATSSA.

Not on the agenda, but sure to be another topic of conversation is a document recently published by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) titled, “Renewing the National Commitment to the Interstate Highway System: A Foundation for the Future (2019).” This report was requested by Congress to facilitate their discussions on the future of highway construction, maintenance and most importantly, funding.

Download a copy of the report HERE.

The report begins by looking at the history of the national highway system, then examines the needs for current and future maintenance and expansion and the funding problems of the trust fund. Finally, it offers a “Blueprint for Action” including these 10 recommendations:

  1. Congress should require a new program to rebuild and revitalize our existing highway system.
  2. They should work with states to “right size” the highway system, adding capacity where needed to meet developing demand.
  3. FHWA should work with states to assess the structural integrity of existing pavements and use that to decide when full reconstruction is more cost-effective than repaving.
  4. These improvements should be paid for by immediately raising the federal fuel tax to cover the federal share of the investment in renewal and modernization.
  5. Congress should allow states and local agencies to toll existing roadways as a way of helping them pay their share of these improvements.
  6. To avoid future funding shortfalls due to changes in technology, Congress should prepare to change from a per gallon fuel charge to a miles-driven or other user-based system.
  7. A new database of pavement conditions should be developed and combined with new modeling software to help make better decisions regarding the roads that should be improved.
  8. Begin preparing for connected and automated vehicles by learning what they will need in terms of roadway safety infrastructure including pavement markings signs, and temporary traffic control devices.
  9. With the goal of a more resilient highway system, assess the potential threats to our roadways from climate change and extreme weather and determine where improvements to our roads should be made.
  10. Recommend ways of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

As Congress works once again on a new highway bill, this document is sure to be a part of the discussion. Most of these 10 recommendations fit nicely with ATSSA’s efforts to improve roadway safety. Familiarize yourself with these recommendations and include them in your next conversation with your elected representatives!

Common Mistakes in Work Zone ITS Lessons Learned During 20 Years in This Field

Today, we would like to discuss common mistakes agencies make when including work zone ITS in a project. But we don’t want to scare anyone away or make this more difficult than it really is. Today, work zone ITS is easy to use, easy to contract, and easy to evaluate. So please dive in and learn your own lessons as you go along.

But with that said, there are a few bits of advice we can offer from our many years deploying these systems.

The first is simple enough. Before you specify a system in a project, identify and clearly state your agency’s goal for that system. Is it end-of-queue crash reduction? Is it diverting traffic onto alternate routes? Is it speed reduction? You and every other decision maker in your agency need to agree on the primary goal, and then communicate that goal to the system supplier through your specifications.

Second, don’t try to do too much with your system. Focus on that primary goal first. If the system supplied can also handle additional responsibilities, then add those that help you meet any secondary goals. For example, a queue detection system can also provide traffic data to meet the Federal Work Zone Safety & Mobility rule. But don’t add features that will just bombard you with data you can’t use. You will have plenty to work with as it is.

Once you have your goal for the project, you can begin designing your system. If the goal is reducing rear-end crashes in slow and stopped traffic, doplar radar is the best sensor to use. It works well at low speeds and is inexpensive. But if your goal is to replace a permanent system that measures speeds, counts and classifications, a side-fire radar such as Wavetronix or RTMS.

Next choose your sensor locations. For most systems you will space them about three-quarters of a mile apart. You may get away with as much as a mile or more in some situations, but more often you will want them between a half-mile and a mile apart. Once they are in place and collecting data, check that data to be sure it is what you need. Locations with a lot of concrete barrier sometimes result in radar echo giving you false results. Locations such as a gore point at the on-ramp from a truck scales will result in below-average speeds as trucks slowly speed up onto the mainline.

Budgets often force you to limit the scope of your system. If it comes down to a choice between cameras or more sensors, please consider maximizing the number of sensors. Better, richer data will result in a more responsive system, and one less susceptible to service interruptions. If you must have cameras, limit their use and the video frame-rate to keep your wireless expenses lower.

Your specifications should include the type and quantity of sensors, message signs, camera trailers and other devices. And consider including a line item for each type of device. In that way, you will have a price if you find you need to increase or decrease the quantity of devices.

Finally, dig into your data. Learn what makes the system work. When an incident happens, look at the data to learn how quickly it affected traffic upstream. And how quickly it clears once the cause has been corrected. This will give you a better sense of the capabilities of these systems and how best to use them on future projects.

Alternative Funding for Work Zone ITS Fact Sheet

Nearly everyone who understands work zone ITS knows it is a cost-effective way of mitigating the traffic impacts of major and sometimes even minor road construction projects. Studies have proven the value of these systems. But DOTs will often tell you they don’t have the funding to pay for it.  The FHWA encourages states to use work zone ITS. They will pay for these systems through conventional construction funding. So, when states say they don’t have the funding they mean they haven’t found a pot of money outside of the money they use for asphalt and concrete.

FHWA wants to address that problem. They have just published the “Alternative Funding for Work Zone ITS Fact Sheet”. In it they document how Illinois uses HSIP funds to pay for Work Zone ITS. Download a copy of the fact sheet HERE.

FHWA says this is a highly underutilized funding mechanism. According to the fact sheet, “While some states use HSIP funds for work zone purposes, many state DOTs do not tap into this resource. Out of the more than 4,000 HSIP projects referenced in the 2016 HSIP National Summary Report, only 13 were work zone-related projects.”

Work Zone ITS Blog addressed the efforts of Matthew Daeda and Illinois DOT on May 12, 2016. We told you that this contracting method offers several advantages:

  1. The state only pays when the system is needed.
  2. They work directly with the vendor and that greatly improves communication.
  3. Staff has direct access to the system data and to make changes.
  4. By bidding for each district local companies are more likely to win, thus reducing response time.

 

This fact sheet is a BIG deal! States are always saying they don’t have the funding. This is one way of getting it. And the Feds aren’t just allowing this. They are encouraging states to use HSIP funds for work zone ITS.

States do need to identify work zone safety as a SHSP Focus Area and provide the data to support that decision. According to the National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse, there were 799 fatalities in US work zones in 2017, up from the previous three-year average of 764. That’s not much when compared to the total roadway fatalities of 37,133.

But work zones are always a safety issue. States can and should include them in their Strategic Highway Safety Plans (SHSP) for a variety of reasons. Work zones force drivers to process more information and react faster than they normally do outside of work zones. That’s why crashes attributable to distracted driving, speeding, aggressive driving, and impaired driving often show up first in work zones. Furthermore, solutions that work in work zones may have applications elsewhere.

In 2017 overall fatalities declined nationally while work zone fatalities increased. Any state with this same disparity should include work zones in the SHSP. Many states have recently increased funding for road construction. They, too, will unfortunately see an associated increase in work zone fatalities. And, again, they to should include work zones in their SHSPs.

This is a wonderful tool. Thank you to Todd Peterson and Jawad Paracha for putting it together. Now we all just need to get his in front of the decision makers in our states!

 

The Importance of Crash Modification Factors to Work Zone ITS

A webinar was held December 5th on work zone crash data collection and analysis. It was organized by Wayne State University and included speakers from the University of Missouri and Michigan State University. A recording of the webinar will be made available soon.

Several very good resources were made available as the webinar began including “A Guide for Work Zone Crash Data Collection, Reporting, and Analysis” which was produced for the FHWA by the Wayne State University College of Engineering. This guide can be found at:  https://www.workzonesafety.org/files/documents/training/fhwa_wz_grant/wsu_wz_data_collection_guide.pdf

As a work zone ITS practitioner, I have deployed many systems over the years but have very little data to prove the effectiveness of those deployments. The problem has always been establishing a base line of the probable number of crashes given the traffic control, project duration, traffic volumes, etc. Only with that base line can we compare our actual crash numbers to determine whether the system was cost-effective.

The crash data guide states the problem very succinctly, “In order to perform an effective work zone safety analysis, the appropriate work zone crash data needs to be available. The availability of this data is only as good as what is collected on the state crash report form.”

The webinar pointed to several states’ best practices in this regard. At a minimum, states are required to include a checkbox on their form to indicate if the crash was work zone related. But states including Connecticut, Iowa, Minnesota, Pennsylvania and Virginia collect much more. They go into detail about the location of the crash within the work zone, and what types of traffic control and construction activity was in place at the time of that crash.

That data will help them develop Crash Modification Factors (CFMs) for different traffic control treatments. In time we hope to see CFMs for queue warning systems, dynamic merge systems, variable speed limit systems, and much more. Those CFMs could be specific to high volume multi-lane facilities, rural four lane highways, etc.

Once CFMs are developed, the rest of the process is fairly simple. Compare the CFM associated with your proposed system to the traffic volumes where that system will be used, and you will know immediately whether the use of that system is justified. The use of these systems is already taking off, but there is still some guess work involved in the decision to use or not use work zone ITS. By developing CFMs we could speed that process along and make it more scientific.

The Illinois Model for Procurement of Work Zone ITS

Yesterday I had the pleasure of sitting in on yet another Smarter Work Zones webinar from the Every Day Counts folks. This was lucky number 13 in this wonderful series and looked at procurement of work zone ITS. You can download the recording in a few days at: https://www.workzonesafety.org/swz/webinars

Early in the webinar an attendee, Charles Martin, made a statement in the chat box that I thought helped focus the discussion. I believe he once worked for Maryland SHA and that experience and perspective showed through when he said, “I find that the most complicated issue to determining how to fund adding SWZ’s often it is not one project driving the need, but rather several. One may have Fed-aide, and others may not. (N)one of the projects may have funding to add ITS.”

The webinar that followed may not have answered his concerns completely, but it did offer several innovative options that should work in most situations.

Todd Peterson of FHWA began by giving an overview of procurement methods and explained that the best option depends on the type of work zone ITS you plan to use. Jerry Ullman of Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) ran through the different contracting methods that three states (Massachusetts, Texas and Iowa) have used and shared some lessons learned. Finally, Matthew Daeda of Illinois DOT went into detail on his state’s approach and that’s what we will talk about today.

Illinois uses a two level approach to procurement of work zone ITS. For larger contracts and longer term projects they try to identify the need as early in the process as possible. This is usually accomplished as a lump sum line item in the bid documents. Details regarding the types and quantities of devices are included in the special provisions. When they know they will have serious traffic impacts, they include WZITS and other mitigation strategies in the bid documents.

They will also add WZITS under change order when impacts are greater than expected. Again this is done with the same language they use when it is included in the bid.

Illinois

But for smaller projects and short duration traffic impacts, they are now using an on-call contract. Each district advertises a bid for this on-call service. Districts 1, 8 and 9 already have three year contracts in place. Districts 2, 3 and 5 have or will soon have contracts in place. Districts 4, 6 and 7 will follow suit very soon. The on-call work zone ITS is paid for using HSIP funding.

These on-call contracts are intended to provide queue warning for projects with a duration of two weeks or less. In District 1 (Chicago) and 8 (St Louis) the vendor supplies 4 changeable message signs and 4 sensors. In more rural District 9 the vendor supplies 1 changeable message sign and 4 sensors. Each district adjusts the quantities to fit the needs of that district. District 9 includes rates for monthly rentals. Districts 1 and 8 only include daily and weekly rates.

This contracting method offers several advantages:

  1. The state only pays when the system is needed.
  2. They work directly with the vendor and that greatly improves communication.
  3. Staff has direct access to the system data and to make changes.
  4. By bidding for each district local companies are more likely to win, thus reducing response time.

Mr. Daeda offered several lessons learned. He said that one vendor installed software in their TMC that did not work well with their firewall. In the future he would like to require vendors to install and test any software before getting a notice to proceed.

He would like a pay item for supplemental devices. Then he could add more sensors or message signs when they are needed.

When deployments run over a month, they currently pay for a month at the monthly rate and for additional days beyond that at higher daily and weekly rates. Mr. Daeda wants to change that going forward to be at a percentage of the monthly rate once the system has been out for more than a month.

Matthew plans to clarify language regarding relocation of devices. And there have been times when he wished he could add camera trailers.

In our last blog post, “The State of the Work Zone ITS Industry”, we talked about the many ways in which 2015 was a landmark year. This webinar is a perfect example of that. These EDC events just keep getting better. The speakers were all on topic and very professional. The webinar service worked without interruption. And the attendees asked great questions.  If you haven’t watched them yet, you are missing out on a great experience!

Jump Start Work Zone Intelligent Transportation Systems in Your State

screenshot-expo atssa com 2016-02-08 10-56-28

We just got back from ATSSA’s annual Traffic Expo held this year in New Orleans. The focus of this show, more than ever before, was innovation. There was a lot of talk about automated and autonomous vehicles. And there were two great workshops on work zone ITS. In particular, I moderated a session Monday morning entitled, “Jump Start Work Zone Intelligent Transportation Systems in Your State”.

It was very well attended, 15 state DOTs were represented along with several local agencies and contractors. The material presented was fresh, and a very lively discussion followed afterward. The workshop looked at new and innovative ways states are contracting for work zone ITS in general and queue warning systems in particular.

Jerry Ullman of TTI led off by talking about the Texas model for contracting for these systems directly with the system providers and outside of the normal project contracting process. Steve Kite of North Carolina DOT talked about his state’s plan for doing the same thing through something similar to a professional services contract.

Keith Roberts of Illinois DOT described what they have done to bid an on-demand contract in his district. They tried doing it in a couple of different but similar ways in two districts. It has been so successful that Illinois is now going state wide. Priscilla Tobias, the Illinois State Safety Engineer, has approved bidding on-demand queue warning systems for all 9 Illinois DOT districts.

The bid includes rental rates for sensors and portable changeable message signs by the day, week and month. This on-demand contract is intended to supply queue warning for projects where the traffic impacts are short term, or unexpected. It could also be used for major incidents. Large projects requiring queue warning already include these systems as a line item and won’t normally use the on-demand rentals.

The obvious advantage to this method is you only pay for the system when you need it. There is never a need to justify use of a queue warning system until the queues develop. And then you order the number of devices you need to address the problem. It really is a more economical use of funding.

Another less obvious advantage is the agency works directly with the system supplier. Communication is faster and more seamless. DOTs learn the system capabilities faster and more completely and make better use of them as a result.

Many other states are now going forward with their own on-demand contracts including Indiana, North Carolina, and Michigan. And given the number of states that attended this session, don’t be surprised if several more join them very soon.

On-demand queue warning has revolutionized work zone ITS. It makes it available when and where it is needed, not just on large projects where traffic impacts are anticipated. We all owe a large debt of gratitude to Jerry Ullman of the Texas Transportation Institute for pioneering this method and to Priscilla Tobias and Keith Roberts of Illinois DOT for perfecting it.

If you would like to learn more you can begin by downloading the Illinois District 9 specification Illinois spec.

New Ways to Contract Work Zone ITS

Contracting methods for work zone ITS have seen some very interesting developments over the past year or so. Several states have chosen to bid this work outside of the project contracting process. Each has its own set of advantages. Today we will discuss those and, I hope, give you some ideas for your own state.

We are just talking queue warning systems at this point. All of these states began there, which makes sense. 26% of all work zone fatalities are as a result of end of queue crashes. But there is no reason we can’t specify other systems such as dynamic merge or travel time or trucks entering with a similar approach. Since these systems share most components in common, this will drive the cost down even further.

Let’s begin with what these state processes have in common. All of them contract work zone ITS outside of the normal project bid process. The systems are not line items in a larger job. Instead, the state DOT has a contract (or contracts) directly with local traffic control companies to supply, install, maintain and remove work zone ITS systems or components. Think of it as an A&E contract.

So far these contracts are all for some combination of traffic sensors and changeable message signs. In most cases they also include the central control software and data archiving. The winning contractor must supply and install equipment as needed, usually within a few hours.

There are several obvious advantages:
• Immediate availability of portable ITS assets and data.
• Ability to use these systems when and where they are needed, even for incident response or special events.
• Traffic operations department knows where they expect problems and assigns assets as needed.
• When systems aren’t needed, it costs the state nothing.
• When needed, these are reimbursable under the Highway Safety Improvement Program at 90%.
• There are no minimums so contractors are motivated to respond quickly so as to earn more work.
• Construction and design folks need not learn about work zone ITS.

Texas (TTI) Model
The first to do this was Texas. They had several major projects planned for the I-35 corridor and asked the Texas Transportation Institute to find ways to prevent rear-end crashes in what they knew would be frequent stop and go traffic.

Because they were the first state to try this and bidders had no way of knowing what would happen, the state purchased the equipment and local traffic control contractors bid the work of installing, removing and maintaining the equipment. Each day TTI looks at planned lane closures, estimates the queue lengths, then calls the contractor and tells them which systems are needed and where. They call out either a type 1 or type 2. A type 1 is 4 sensors and 1 changeable message sign. A type 2 is 8 sensors and 2 CMS.

Advantages: TxDOT pays only for the labor to deploy and maintain the equipment. This method is easier for contractors to bid. They know their labor costs, etc. Whereas work zone ITS system costs are new to most and may be bid on the high side to cover unforeseen expenses.

Minnesota / Iowa Model
For this model, the state contracts with a single equipment rental company to supply, deploy and maintain microwave sensor trailers. The sensors are integrated into the states permanent sensor network. They are used for systems operations functions as well as project specific systems such as queue warning.

Advantages: Seamless integration with permanent assets. Sensors can be quickly relocated as conditions change. Wavetronix sensors provide far more detailed data including lane by lane counts, classifications and volumes. However, they are significantly more expensive than doplar radar.

Illinois Model
Illinois provided the most recent approach to this process. They chose to bid sensors and message signs by the day, week and month delivered within a district. It includes the central controller software and data archiving.

Advantages: This gives local contractors an advantage which will reduce response times to the state.
The state only pays when they order devices. There are no minimum orders. This motivates the contractor to perform well in hopes of getting more work.

In recent weeks several other states are adopting these methods including Indiana, Michigan and Oregon. All three approaches are working well in the states where they are used. The best one for your state will depend on your needs and the underlying contracting regulations you must work within.

Good specification writing is important. You must describe exactly what outputs are required: how system should operate, data access and storage, response times for delivery and set-up, response times for maintenance, repair or damage, etc. Be sure to list the required number and type of each device that the contractor must have in stock and ready to deploy.

You should also consider some sort of prequalification process. It should give a score for financial stability, years in business, and experience with work zone ITS deployments. Prior experience should also be considered for future contracts – both positive and negative.

Keep it simple. You may want to include portable cameras. Or you may want to include separate numbers of microwave and doplar sensors. But don’t get into other devices you aren’t likely to need. The contractor will know these are unlikely to be used much and so will have to bid high to cover their fixed costs.

This new approach makes using work zone ITS far easier to do. It probably saves money as well. It can jump start the use of these systems in your state, so pick the model that fits you best and get started!